Alcohol and Drugs

Alcohol and drugs

According to research, the drug most consumed by adolescents and young people is thealcohol. The health problems that most affect young men stem from the use of alcohol and other drugs. Often the context of life of those who use alcohol and other drugs is associated with situations of violence and when defining strategies of action in this field, it is essential to consider that violence occurs in each
Specific form and may be related to gender issues.
Alcohol and other drugs are substances that cause changes in perception and
Form of action of a person. These variations depend on the type of substance
Consumption, the quantity used, the personal characteristics of the person who
Even of the expectations that one has about its effects.

Now, what makes a person use alcohol and other drugs?
This seems like a simple question to answer, but it’s just the opposite. It is good to know that, historically, mankind has always sought
By substances that produced some kind of alteration in their mood, in their
Perceptions, in their sensations. And there are substances that produce these changes
And are accepted by society, others are not.

 The reasons they lead
Some people using drugs vary a lot. Every person has needs,

Impulses or goals that make them act in one way or another and making choices
many different.

If we were to make a list, according to what the experts say about the
Which motivates people to use the drug, we would see that the reasons are many and that
Our list would still be incomplete. These are some of the reasons that lead to drug use:
  • –curiosity;
  • –to forget about problems, frustrations or dissatisfaction;
  • – to escape boredom;
  • – to escape shyness and insecurity;
  • –because certain drugs increase the creativity, sensitivity and sexual potency                                     — pleasure search;

But the question remains: how do you identify a drug user?

Are several substances that affect the normal functioning of our body. Among them, are cigarette smoke, alcoholic beverages and others that can influence our feelings, our perceptions. These substances are called drugs. Drugs are causing serious individual problems that can turn into social problems. Drugs are very addictive substances ie they create will or need to re-consume d also create habituation ie the regulating consumption and the need to always double doses.

The term “drug” comes from the French word

Whose origin is controversial. It would probably be derived from the expression Dutch medieval *droge* vate, dry barrels, from where, by substantivation, droge went on to designate the content, the dry product.

Drugs are any and all substances, natural or synthetic, which, once introduced into the body, modify their functions.

Natural drugs are obtained through certain plants, animals and some minerals – caffeine (coffee), nicotine (present in tobacco), opium (in the poppy) and THC or tetrahydrocannabinol (from Cannabis).

Synthetic drugs are manufactured in the laboratory, requiring special techniques. The term drug, lends itself to several interpretations, but to common sense is a substance prohibited, of illegal use and harmful to the individual, modifying to him the functions, the sensations, the humor and the behavior.

Drugs can be classified according to their types and can be lawful and illicit, in illicit drugs we find its subtypes which are depressant, stimulant and disturbing drugs.

Licit drugs

Licit drugs are natural or synthetic substances that have the ability to change the behavior of the individual and whose production, distribution and consumption is allowed by law.

Despite being a liberated drug, the licit drug is a health threat and causes addiction to users. According to the World Health Organization, the incidence of health problems resulting from the indiscriminate use of licit drugs is higher than that of illicit drugs.
Among the most frequent licit drugs stand out if alcohol and cigarette.

Alcohol is being consumed more and more by the world’s population, especially by young people, who experience drinking earlier and earlier. And the sooner a person starts drinking, the greater the chance of becoming dependent.

When ingested alcohol causes the sensation of security, the user feels uninhibited, at first, but if the amount ingested exceeds the limit, his behavior becomes uncontrolled, may have aggressive or depressive reactions, becoming uncoordinated and sleepy. Frequent use makes the user dependent on the drug, which can harm him or her socially.

The adult dependent may develop cirrhosis of the liver, heart problems and hypertension. In most cases, with drink suspension, it is possible to recover the liver and the membranes of the more fragile neurons, which are also affected.

The cigarette causes a sensation of euphoria in the smoker. In addition to tobacco, it contains many extremely toxic and carcinogenic chemicals. Continued use of the cigarette causes the smoker to lose respiratory resistance, throat irritation, chronic coughing, and lung damage, leading to cancer and lung emphysema. Smoking alters the metabolism and compromises the development of the body of the young smoker.

Brazil spends billions in the treatment of patients with diseases related to cigarette use. August 29 is the National Day to Combat Tobacco, was created with the objective of strengthening national actions to raise awareness and mobilize the population for the damages caused by tobacco.

Smokers who try to stop the addiction experience tremors from tobacco abstinence and many give up. Among ten addicts who try to stop, only one can drop the addiction completely.
Ilicit drugs
Illicit drugs are substances in which production, marketing and consumption are prohibited by law. The drugs, when ingested, inhaled or applied in the body, cause changes in their state, because they act on the nervous system and alter the behavior and mental state of the people who use them – are the so-called psychotropic drugs.

Among them are licit drugs and
Illicit drugs, which, because they are prohibited by law, circulate in the country through trafficking. Among the illicit drugs are marijuana, cocaine, crack, ecstasy, LSD, among others.
Subtypes of illicit drugs:

1. depressant drugs
Depressant drugs, such as heroin, cause effects on the body as less reasoning and concentration, exaggerated feeling of calm and tranquility, exaggerated relaxation, well-being, increased drowsiness, slower reflexes, decreased sensation of pain and difficulty in Make delicate movements.

Therefore, the ability to drive reduces, in addition to diminishing learning ability in school and profitability at work.

2. stimulant drugs
Stimulant drugs, such as cocaine, trigger effects such as intense feeling of euphoria and power, arousal, lots of activity and energy, decreased sleep and appetite, fast talking and high heart rate and pressure. These drugs cause the individual to become uncontrolled and lose the notion of reality.

3. disturbing drugs
Disturbing drugs, also known as hallucinogenic or psychodysleptics, such as marijuana, LSD 25, and ecstasy cause hallucinations, mainly visual changes such as color changes, shapes and contours of objects, altered sensation of time and space, and minutes appear as hours or meters They seem to have a sense of great pleasure or intense fear, ease in panic and exaltation, exaggerated notion of grandiosity, and delusions of robbery and persecution.

These effects can be perceived in a few minutes, but tend to last a short time, and therefore, abusive use of drugs in increasing amounts to prolong the effect.

Regarding the type of users, can be:
EXPERIMENTATOR: try one or more substances and do not use again.

OCCASIONAL: uses one or several substances on different occasions (parties, favorable environments) but does not suffer the ruptures in their affective, social or professional relations.

HABITUAL OR FUNCTIONAL: often uses one or more substances, but still maintains a certain control, but initiating its ruptures with itself and the environment.

DEPENDENT OR DYSFUNCTIONAL: his life happens to be for the drug and for the drug, without control, with total rupture of its bonds, marginalized and isolated from the social and familiar environment.

Effects and Risks of Illicit Drugs
Marijuana is prepared with parts of the plant (Cannabis sativa), which are milled and rolled in the form of a cigar. Its use causes effects such as calm, relaxation, introspection, dry mouth, sweating, tremors, poor balance and motor coordination. Its continued use can lead the consumer to anguish, fear of losing control, and panic.

Cocaine is obtained from coca leaves (Erythroxylon coca), a plant legally used as tea for over 1000 years by the South American people. Cocaine is produced by chemical processes and used in the form of powder, which is inhaled or injected into the bloodstream. It causes excitement and euphoria, increased mental activity, decreased appetite, and increased blood pressure. Its frequent use can lead to cardiovascular disorders, respiratory arrest, stroke and heart attack.

Crack as well as cocaine is obtained from coca paste, which mixed with certain salts produces a crystal. This stone is smoked in pipes and has an effect on the body similar to injected cocaine. Its use produces euphoria and excitement, a feeling of power more intense than cocaine, but of much shorter duration (which leads to wanting to consume ever more). The risks of using crack are bleeding, strokes and severe neurological damage.

Ecstasy is produced in the laboratory, usually in the form of tablets. Its use causes increased body temperature, increased physical stamina and sensory perceptions. Among the risks, its frequent use can lead to dehydration, panic, physical and psychological stress.

LSD (or acid) is manufactured in the laboratory. It is usually presented on a paper impregnated with the drug, to be dissolved in the mouth. Its use leads to hallucinations, with distortions of visual perception, increased blood pressure and heart rate. Among the risks of frequent use are delusions, which lose the notion of danger, even causing death. It can also accelerate the development of psychic illnesses in people who are prone to them.

8% – ALCOHOL – that is to say: of 100 people, 8 become dependent
23% – MACONHA – that is, of 100 people, 23 are dependent.
30% – COCAINE – that is, of 100 people, 30 are dependent.
74% – NICOTINA – that is, of 100 people, 74 are dependent.
100% – HEROIN – that is, of 100 people, 100 are dependent.

OBS. : There is no research on “CRACK”, but it is believed to have the same behavior as HEROIN, that is, 100% effect to cause dependence in individuals.

Consequences of long-term drug use
The use of all types of drugs, besides causing immediate effects can also cause changes for the rest of life, such as:

Injury caused by drug use
  • – Destruction of neurons, which diminish the capacity to think;
  • Development of psychiatric illnesses, such as psychosis, depression or schizophrenia;
  • Liver damage, such as liver cancer;
  • – Great functioning of the kidneys and nerves;
  • –Development of contagious diseases, such as Aids or Hepatitis;
  • Heart problems such as heart attack.
  • – Drug use can also lead to early death, so it is important that every dependent is properly treated at drug recovery clinics. In addition, the family is also affected, causing unbalance due to uncontrolled behaviors and the isolation of family and society.

Drug use is a very serious problem, and it requires a lot of attention from everyone, whether parents, friends or close people. Drugs also cause very serious problems in our body, damaging it completely, and most of the time or in many cases leading to death by overdose. 
To help a dependent, we must be very strict in observing the following aspects:

  • – Knowing the problem of drug addiction.
  • – Discussing and learning different approaches.
  • – Sharing the resulting problems.
  • – Seeking and helping to find solutions, attending groups, such as Love-Demanding, for example.

  • – Applying and practicing the 12 Principles of Love-Demanding.
  • – Changing the usual and routine behavior.
  • – Taking appropriate action on the problem.
  • – Not doing for the other what he must do.
  • – Not covering what the other does wrong.
  • – Allowing the other to suffer the consequences of their acts.

  Drugs in adolescence
Adolescence is a phase of human development in which many changes occur, it is a conflictive phase of life due to the physical and emotional transformations experienced. It raises the curiosity, the questions, the will to know, to experience the new even knowing the risks, and a feeling of being able to make their own decisions. It is the moment that the adolescent looks for its identity, no longer being based on the orientations of the parents, but also in the relations that builds mainly with the group of friendly.

For the vast majority of young people, having new experiences (places, music, friends and drugs) will not necessarily bring permanent problems, and many will become healthy adults. But there are young people who have problems from these experiences, and because of this adolescence is a time of risk for involvement with drugs.

At least in part, the risks can be attributed to the very characteristics of adolescence such as:
  • -Need for acceptance by group of friends
  • -Desire to experience behaviors seen as “adult”
  • -Feeling of omnipotence “with me this does not happen”
  • -Major behavioral changes leading to insecurity
  • -Increased impulsivity

The natural curiosity of adolescents is one of the factors of greater influence in the experimentation of alcohol and other drugs, as well as the opinion of the friends. This curiosity makes him seek new sensations and pleasures, the adolescent lives the present and in his quest for immediate accomplishments the effect of drugs goes against this, providing immediate pleasure.

The fad is another important aspect related to the use of substances among adolescents, as it reflects the current trend, and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to these influences. After all, they are leaving their childhood and beginning to feel the pleasure of freedom in small things, from the choice of their own clothes, and leisure activities, to the definition of their style. The pressure of the class, the model of the idols and the examples that the young people had in the house. Recent studies prove that 60% of adolescents use drugs which causes many problems of development of this same individual, can even a teenager start the life of a trafficker very early.

Alcohol or alcoholism
Alcoholism is a broad term to describe problems with alcohol, and is generally used in the sense of compulsive and uncontrolled consumption of alcoholic beverages, in most cases with negative implications in the.

Health, affective relationships and the social role of the alcoholic. In medical terms, alcoholism is considered a psychiatric illness. Alcohol abuse can potentially cause injuries in virtually every organ of the body, including the brain. The accumulation of Toxic substances derived from chronic alcohol abuse can lead to medical and psychiatric problems.

The World Health Organization considers alcoholism a disease with physical and mental components.
Characteristics of alcoholism

In addition to impairment in academic, professional, social, and family life, prolonged alcohol abuse can cause cancer in the Oral cavity, esophagus, pharynx, liver and / or Gallbladder; Hepatitis, cirrhosis, gastritis, ulcers, brain damage, malnutrition, heart problems, blood pressure problems, as well as psychological disorders. During the Gestation causes fetal malformation.

While alcohol abuse is a prerequisite for what is defined as alcoholism, its biological mechanism is still uncertain. For most people, alcohol consumption generates little or no risk of becoming an addiction. Other factors usually contribute to alcohol use turning into alcoholism. These factors may include the social and cultural environment, psychological health, and genetic predisposition.

Treatments for alcoholism
The treatments for alcoholism are quite varied because there are multiple perspectives for this condition. Those who have an alcoholism approaching a medical condition or illness are advised to treat differently from those approaching this condition as a social choice. The treatment of alcoholism should not be confused with withdrawal treatment alone. The treatment of alcoholism is complex, multiprofessional and long, depending on the patient’s persistence and his social network of support for the healing process.

Most treatments seek to help people lower their alcohol intake, followed by life support or social support so that they help the person resist the return of alcohol use. Because alcoholism involves multiple factors that encourage a person to continue drinking, all of these factors must be suppressed in order to successfully prevent relapse. An example for this type of treatment is detox followed by a combination of supportive therapy, care in self-help groups, etc. Most treatments generally prefer a zero tolerance withdrawal; However, some prefer a progessive consumption reduction approach.

In order to be effective in the treatment of alcoholism, it is necessary to observe the three basic aspects: mutual help, rationing and moderation, and the most efficient method of psychotherapy or hospitalization.

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